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The CIA triad is a great starting point. Much of cybersecurity derives from trying to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and Availability of systems and data. The logic behind things like least privilege are derived from this core concept.
Another key concept that deserves consideration is risk. What risk is and how decreasing risk in some areas can increase risk in others. (e.g complex passwords decrease the risk of a password being guessed by an attacker, but increase the risk that a user will write down the password.) much of cybersecurity is balancing risks and prioritizing things based on the risks presented.
Let's keep in mind that camDown is a highly advanced, specialized webcam blocker and disabler with the best in class protection from variety of on-line threats and I am sure your father would agree!